What are the components of a photovoltaic (PV) system?

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A photovoltaic system is made up of different components. These include:

  • PV modules (groups of PV cells), which are commonly called PV panels;
  • One or more batteries;
  • A charge regulator or controller for a stand-alone system;
  • An inverter for a utility-grid-connected system and when alternating current (ac) rather than direct current (dc) is required;
  • Wiring; and
  • Mounting hardware or a framework.