A photovoltaic system is made up of different components. These include:
- PV modules (groups of PV cells), which are commonly called PV panels;
- One or more batteries;
- A charge regulator or controller for a stand-alone system;
- An inverter for a utility-grid-connected system and when alternating current (ac) rather than direct current (dc) is required;
- Wiring; and
- Mounting hardware or a framework.